In order to improve the traceability of biological medicinal products, the name and the batch number of the administered product should be clearly recorded.
Infliximab has been associated with acute infusion-related reactions, including anaphylactic shock, and delayed hypersensitivity reactions (see section 4.8 of Summary of Product Characteristics).
Acute infusion reactions including anaphylactic reactions may develop during (within seconds) or within a few hours following infusion. If acute infusion reactions occur, the infusion must be interrupted immediately. Emergency equipment, such as adrenaline, antihistamines, corticosteroids and an artificial airway must be available. Patients may be pre-treated with e.g., an antihistamine, hydrocortisone and/or paracetamol to prevent mild and transient effects.
Antibodies to infliximab may develop and have been associated with an increased frequency of infusion reactions. A low proportion of the infusion reactions was serious allergic reactions. An association between development of antibodies to infliximab and reduced duration of response has also been observed. Concomitant administration of immunomodulators has been associated with lower incidence of antibodies to infliximab and a reduction in the frequency of infusion reactions. The effect of concomitant immunomodulator therapy was more profound in episodically-treated patients than in patients given maintenance therapy. Patients who discontinue immunosuppressants prior to or during infliximab treatment are at greater risk of developing these antibodies. Antibodies to infliximab cannot always be detected in serum samples. If serious reactions occur, symptomatic treatment must be given and further FlixabiTM infusions must not be administered (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
In clinical studies, delayed hypersensitivity reactions have been reported. Available data suggest an increased risk for delayed hypersensitivity with increasing infliximab-free interval. Patients should be advised to seek immediate medical advice if they experience any delayed adverse reaction (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics). If patients are re-treated after a prolonged period, they must be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of delayed hypersensitivity.
Patients must be monitored closely for infections including tuberculosis before, during and after treatment with FlixabiTM. Because the elimination of infliximab may take up to six months, monitoring should be continued throughout this period. Further treatment with FlixabiTM must not be given if a patient develops a serious infection or sepsis.
Caution should be exercised when considering the use of FlixabiTM in patients with chronic infection or a history of recurrent infections, including concomitant immunosuppressive therapy. Patients should be advised of and avoid exposure to potential risk factors for infection as appropriate.
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) mediates inflammation and modulates cellular immune responses. Experimental data show that TNFα is essential for the clearing of intracellular infections. Clinical experience shows that host defence against infection is compromised in some patients treated with infliximab.
It should be noted that suppression of TNFα may mask symptoms of infection such as fever. Early recognition of atypical clinical presentations of serious infections and of typical clinical presentation of rare and unusual infections is critical in order to minimise delays in diagnosis and treatment.
Patients taking TNF-blockers are more susceptible to serious infections.
Tuberculosis, bacterial infections, including sepsis and pneumonia, invasive fungal, viral, and other opportunistic infections have been observed in patients treated with infliximab. Some of these infections have been fatal; the most frequently reported opportunistic infections with a mortality rate of > 5% include pneumocystosis, candidiasis, listeriosis and aspergillosis.
Patients who develop a new infection while undergoing treatment with FlixabiTM, should be monitored closely and undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Administration of FlixabiTM should be discontinued if a patient develops a new serious infection or sepsis, and appropriate antimicrobial or antifungal therapy should be initiated until the infection is controlled.
There have been reports of active tuberculosis in patients receiving infliximab. It should be noted that in the majority of these reports tuberculosis was extrapulmonary, presenting as either local or disseminated disease.
Before starting treatment with FlixabiTM, all patients must be evaluated for both active and inactive (‘latent’) tuberculosis. This evaluation should include a detailed medical history with personal history of tuberculosis or possible previous contact with tuberculosis and previous and/or current immunosuppressive therapy. Appropriate screening tests, e.g. tuberculin skin test, chest X-ray, and/or Interferon Gamma Release Assay), should be performed in all patients (local recommendations may apply). It is recommended that the conduct of these tests should be recorded in the patient’s reminder card. Prescribers are reminded of the risk of false negative tuberculin skin test results, especially in patients who are severely ill or immunocompromised.
If active tuberculosis is diagnosed, FlixabiTM therapy must not be initiated (see section 4.3 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
If latent tuberculosis is suspected, a physician with expertise in the treatment of tuberculosis should be consulted. In all situations described below, the benefit/risk balance of FlixabiTM therapy should be very carefully considered.
If inactive (‘latent’) tuberculosis is diagnosed, treatment for latent tuberculosis must be started with antituberculosis therapy before the initiation of FlixabiTM, and in accordance with local recommendations.
In patients who have several or significant risk factors for tuberculosis and have a negative test for latent tuberculosis, antituberculosis therapy should be considered before the initiation of FlixabiTM.
Use of anti-tuberculosis therapy should also be considered before the initiation of FlixabiTM in patients with a past history of latent or active tuberculosis in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed.
Some cases of active tuberculosis have been reported in patients treated with FlixabiTM during and after treatment for latent tuberculosis.
All patients should be informed to seek medical advice if signs/symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis (e.g. persistent cough, wasting/weight loss, low-grade fever) appear during or after FlixabiTM treatment.
Invasive fungal infections
In patients treated with FlixabiTM, an invasive fungal infection such as aspergillosis, candidiasis, pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis or blastomycosis should be suspected if they develop a serious systemic illness, and a physician with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of invasive fungal infections should be consulted at an early stage when investigating these patients.
Invasive fungal infections may present as disseminated rather than localised disease, and antigen and antibody testing may be negative in some patients with active infection. Appropriate empiric antifungal therapy should be considered while a diagnostic workup is being performed taking into account both the risk for severe fungal infection and the risks of antifungal therapy.
For patients who have resided in or travelled to regions where invasive fungal infections such as histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, or blastomycosis are endemic, the benefits and risks of FlixabiTM treatment should be carefully considered before initiation of FlixabiTM therapy.
Fistulising Crohn’s disease
Patients with fistulising Crohn’s disease with acute suppurative fistulas must not initiate FlixabiTM therapy until a source for possible infection, specifically abscess, has been excluded (see section 4.3 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Reactivation of hepatitis B has occurred in patients receiving a TNF-antagonist including infliximab, who are chronic carriers of this virus. Some cases have had fatal outcome.
Patients should be tested for HBV infection before initiating treatment with FlixabiTM. For patients who test positive for HBV infection, consultation with a physician with expertise in the treatment of hepatitis B is recommended. Carriers of HBV who require treatment with FlixabiTM should be closely monitored for signs and symptoms of active HBV infection throughout therapy and for several months following termination of therapy. Adequate data of treating patients who are carriers of HBV with antiviral therapy in conjunction with TNF-antagonist therapy to prevent HBV reactivation are not available. In patients who develop HBV reactivation, FlixabiTM should be stopped and effective antiviral therapy with appropriate supportive treatment should be initiated.
Cases of jaundice and non-infectious hepatitis, some with features of autoimmune hepatitis, have been observed in the post-marketing experience of infliximab. Isolated cases of liver failure resulting in liver transplantation or death have occurred. Patients with symptoms or signs of liver dysfunction should be evaluated for evidence of liver injury. If jaundice and/or ALT elevations ≥ 5 times the upper limit of normal develop(s), FlixabiTM should be discontinued, and a thorough investigation of the abnormality should be undertaken.
Serious infections and neutropenia were seen in clinical studies with concurrent use of anakinra and another TNFα-blocking agent, etanercept, with no added clinical benefit compared to etanercept alone. Because of the nature of the adverse reactions seen with combination of etanercept and anakinra therapy, similar toxicities may also result from the combination of anakinra and other TNFα-blocking agents. Therefore, the combination of FlixabiTM and anakinra is not recommended.
In clinical studies concurrent administration of TNF-antagonists and abatacept has been associated with an increased risk of infections including serious infections compared to TNF-antagonists alone, without increased clinical benefit. The combination of FlixabiTM and abatacept is not recommended.
There is insufficient information regarding the concomitant use of infliximab with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as infliximab. The concomitant use of FlixabiTM with these biologics is not recommended because of the possibility of an increased risk of infection, and other potential pharmacological interactions.
Care should be taken and patients should continue to be monitored when switching from one biologic to another, since overlapping biological activity may further increase the risk for adverse reactions, including infection.
It is recommended that patients, if possible, be brought up to date with all vaccinations in agreement with current vaccination guidelines prior to initiating FlixabiTM therapy. Patients on infliximab may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines (see sections 4.5 and 4.6 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
In a subset of 90 adult patients with rheumatoid arthritis from the ASPIRE study a similar proportion of patients in each treatment group (methotrexate plus: placebo [n = 17], 3 mg/kg [n = 27] or 6 mg/kg infliximab [n = 46]) mounted an effective two-fold increase in titers to a polyvalent pneumococcal vaccine, indicating that infliximab did not interfere with T-cell independent humoral immune responses. However, studies from the published literature in various indications (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohn’s disease) suggest that non-live vaccinations received during treatment with anti-TNF therapies, including infliximab, may elicit a lower immune response than in patients not receiving anti-TNF therapy.
In patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, limited data are available on the response to vaccination with live vaccines or on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines. Use of live vaccines can result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. The concurrent administration of live vaccines with FlixabiTM is not recommended.
In infants exposed in utero to infliximab, fatal outcome due to disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection has been reported following administration of BCG vaccine after birth. At least a six month waiting period following birth is recommended before the administration of live vaccines to infants exposed in utero to infliximab (see section 4.6 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Other uses of therapeutic infectious agents such as live attenuated bacteria (e.g., BCG bladder instillation for the treatment of cancer) could result in clinical infections, including disseminated infections. It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with FlixabiTM.
The relative deficiency of TNFα caused by anti-TNF therapy may result in the initiation of an autoimmune process. If a patient develops symptoms suggestive of a lupus-like syndrome following treatment with FlixabiTM and is positive for antibodies against double-stranded DNA, further treatment with FlixabiTM must not be given (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Use of TNF-blocking agents, including infliximab, has been associated with cases of new onset or exacerbation of clinical symptoms and/or radiographic evidence of central nervous system demyelinating disorders, including multiple sclerosis, and peripheral demyelinating disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. In patients with pre-existing or recent onset of demyelinating disorders, the benefits and risks of anti-TNF treatment should be carefully considered before initiation of FlixabiTM therapy. Discontinuation of FlixabiTM should be considered if these disorders develop.
In the controlled portions of clinical studies of TNF-blocking agents, more cases of malignancies including lymphoma have been observed among patients receiving a TNF blocker compared with control patients. During clinical studies of infliximab across all approved indications the incidence of lymphoma in infliximab-treated patients was higher than expected in the general population, but the occurrence of lymphoma was rare. In the post-marketing setting, cases of leukaemia have been reported in patients treated with a TNF-antagonist. There is an increased background risk for lymphoma and leukaemia in rheumatoid arthritis patients with long-standing, highly active, inflammatory disease, which complicates risk estimation.
In an exploratory clinical study evaluating the use of infliximab in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), more malignancies were reported in infliximab-treated patients compared with control patients. All patients had a history of heavy smoking. Caution should be exercised in considering treatment of patients with increased risk for malignancy due to heavy smoking.
With the current knowledge, a risk for the development of lymphomas or other malignancies in patients treated with a TNF-blocking agent cannot be excluded (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics ). Caution should be exercised when considering TNF-blocking therapy for patients with a history of malignancy or when considering continuing treatment in patients who develop a malignancy.
Caution should also be exercised in patients with psoriasis and a medical history of extensive immunosuppressant therapy or prolonged PUVA treatment.
Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents and young adults (up to 22 years of age) treated with TNF-blocking agents (initiation of therapy ≤ 18 years of age), including infliximab in the post-marketing setting. Approximately half the cases were lymphomas. The other cases represented a variety of different malignancies and included rare malignancies usually associated with immunosuppression. A risk for the development of malignancies in patients treated with TNF-blockers cannot be excluded.
Post-marketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTCL) have been reported in patients treated with TNF-blocking agents including infliximab. This rare type of T-cell lymphoma has a very aggressive disease course and is usually fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with AZA or 6-MP concomitantly with or immediately prior to a TNF-blocker. The vast majority of infliximab cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were reported in adolescent or young adult males. The potential risk with the combination of AZA or 6-MP and FlixabiTM should be carefully considered. A risk for the development for hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in patients treated with FlixabiTM cannot be excluded (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Melanoma and Merkel cell carcinoma have been reported in patients treated with TNF blocker therapy, including infliximab (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics). Periodic skin examination is recommended, particularly for patients with risk factors for skin cancer.
A population-based retrospective cohort study using data from Swedish national health registries found an increased incidence of cervical cancer in women with rheumatoid arthritis treated with infliximab compared to biologics-naïve patients or the general population, including those over 60 years of age. Periodic screening should continue in women treated with infliximab, including those over 60 years of age.
All patients with ulcerative colitis who are at increased risk for dysplasia or colon carcinoma (for example, patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis), or who had a prior history of dysplasia or colon carcinoma should be screened for dysplasia at regular intervals before therapy and throughout their disease course. This evaluation should include colonoscopy and biopsies per local recommendations. Current data do not indicate that infliximab treatment influences the risk for developing dysplasia or colon cancer.
Since the possibility of increased risk of cancer development in patients with newly diagnosed dysplasia treated with infliximab is not established, the risk and benefits of continued therapy to the individual patients should be carefully considered by the clinician.
FlixabiTM should be used with caution in patients with mild heart failure (NYHA class I/II). Patients should be closely monitored and FlixabiTM must not be continued in patients who develop new or worsening symptoms of heart failure (see sections 4.3 and 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
There have been reports of pancytopenia, leucopenia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia in patients receiving TNF-blockers, including infliximab. All patients should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs and symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasias (e.g. persistent fever, bruising, bleeding, pallor). Discontinuation of FlixabiTM therapy should be considered in patients with confirmed significant haematologic abnormalities.
There is limited safety experience of infliximab treatment in patients who have undergone surgical procedures, including arthroplasty. The long half-life of infliximab should be taken into consideration if a surgical procedure is planned. A patient who requires surgery while on FlixabiTM should be closely monitored for infections, and appropriate actions should be taken.
Failure to respond to treatment for Crohn’s disease may indicate the presence of a fixed fibrotic stricture that may require surgical treatment. There is no evidence to suggest that infliximab worsens or causes fibrotic strictures.
The incidence of serious infections in infliximab-treated patients 65 years and older was greater than in those under 65 years of age. Some of those had a fatal outcome. Particular attention regarding the risk for infection should be paid when treating the elderly (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
In clinical studies, infections have been reported in a higher proportion of paediatric patients compared to adult patients (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
It is recommended that paediatric patients, if possible, be brought up to date with all vaccinations in agreement with current vaccination guidelines prior to initiating FlixabiTM therapy. Paediatric patients on infliximab may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines (see sections 4.5 and 4.6 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Malignancies and lymphoproliferative disorders
Malignancies, some fatal, have been reported among children, adolescents and young adults (up to 22 years of age) treated with TNF-blocking agents (initiation of therapy ≤ 18 years of age), including infliximab in the post-marketing setting. Approximately half the cases were lymphomas. The other cases represented a variety of different malignancies and included rare malignancies usually associated with immunosuppression. A risk for the development of malignancies in children and adolescents treated with TNF-blockers cannot be excluded.
Post-marketing cases of hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma have been reported in patients treated with TNF-blocking agents including infliximab. This rare type of T-cell lymphoma has a very aggressive disease course and is usually fatal. Almost all patients had received treatment with AZA or 6-MP concomitantly with or immediately prior to a TNF-blocker. The vast majority of infliximab cases have occurred in patients with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis and most were reported in adolescent or young adult males. The potential risk with the combination of AZA or 6-MP and FlixabiTM should be carefully considered. A risk for the development for hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma in patients treated with FlixabiTM cannot be excluded (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
FlixabiTM contains less than 1 mmol sodium (23 mg) per dose, i.e. essentially ‘sodium-free’. FlixabiTM is however, diluted in sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for infusion. This should be taken into consideration for patients on a controlled sodium diet (see section 6.6 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
No interaction studies with FlixabiTM have been performed.
In rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and Crohn’s disease patients, there are indications that concomitant use of methotrexate and other immunomodulators reduces the formation of antibodies against infliximab and increases the plasma concentrations of infliximab. However, the results are uncertain due to limitations in the methods used for serum analyses of infliximab and antibodies against infliximab.
Corticosteroids do not appear to affect the pharmacokinetics of infliximab to a clinically relevant extent.
The combination of FlixabiTM with other biological therapeutics used to treat the same conditions as FlixabiTM, including anakinra and abatacept, is not recommended (see section 4.4 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
It is recommended that live vaccines not be given concurrently with FlixabiTM. It is also recommended that live vaccines not be given to infants after in utero exposure to infliximab for at least 6 months following birth (see section 4.4 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
It is recommended that therapeutic infectious agents not be given concurrently with FlixabiTM (see section 4.4 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Women of childbearing potential should consider the use of adequate contraception to prevent pregnancy and continue its use for at least 6 months after the last FlixabiTM treatment.
The moderate number of prospectively collected pregnancies exposed to infliximab resulting in live birth with known outcomes, including approximately 1100 exposed during the first trimester, does not indicate an increase in the rate of malformation in the newborn.
Based on an observational study from Northern Europe, an increased risk (OR, 95% CI; p-value) for C-section (1.50, 1.14-1.96; p=0.0032), preterm birth (1.48, 1.05-2.09; p=0.024), small for gestational age (2.79, 1.54-5.04; p=0.0007), and low birth weight (2.03, 1.41-2.94; p=0.0002) was observed in women exposed during pregnancy to infliximab (with or without immunomodulators/corticosteroids, 270 pregnancies) as compared to women exposed to immunomodulators and/or corticosteroids only (6,460 pregnancies). The potential contribution of exposure to infliximab and/or the severity of the underlying disease in these outcomes remains unclear.
Due to its inhibition of TNFα, infliximab administered during pregnancy could affect normal immune responses in the newborn. In a developmental toxicity study conducted in mice using an analogous antibody that selectively inhibits the functional activity of mouse TNFα, there was no indication of maternal toxicity, embryotoxicity or teratogenicity (see section 5.3 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
The available clinical experience is limited. Infliximab should only be used during pregnancy if clearly needed.
Infliximab crosses the placenta and has been detected in the serum of infants up to 6 months following birth. After in utero exposure to infliximab, infants may be at increased risk of infection, including serious disseminated infection that can become fatal. Administration of live vaccines (e.g. BCG vaccine) to infants exposed to infliximab in utero is not recommended for at least 6 months after birth (see sections 4.4 and 4.5 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Cases of agranulocytosis have also been reported (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
It is unknown whether infliximab is excreted in human milk or absorbed systemically after ingestion. Because human immunoglobulins are excreted in milk, women must not breast-feed for at least 6 months after FlixabiTM treatment.
There are insufficient preclinical data to draw conclusions on the effects of infliximab on fertility and general reproductive function (see section 5.3 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
FlixabiTM has a minor influence on the ability to drive and use machines e.g. dizziness, vertigo (see section 4.8 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Upper respiratory tract infection was the most common adverse drug reaction (ADR) reported in clinical trials, occurring in 25.3% of infliximab-treated patients compared with 16.5% of control patients. The most serious ADRs associated with the use of TNF blockers that have been reported for infliximab include HBV reactivation, CHF (congestive heart failure), serious infections (including sepsis, opportunistic infections and TB), serum sickness (delayed hypersensitivity reactions), haematologic reactions, systemic lupus erythematosus/lupus-like syndrome, demyelinating disorders, hepatobiliary events, lymphoma, HSTCL, leukaemia, Merkel cell carcinoma, melanoma, paediatric malignancy, sarcoidosis/sarcoid-like reaction, intestinal or perianal abscess (in Crohn’s disease), and serious infusion reactions (see section 4.4 of the Summary of Product Characteristics).
Table 1 lists ADRs based on experience from clinical studies as well as adverse reactions, some with fatal outcome, reported from post-marketing experience. Within the organ system classes, adverse reactions are listed under headings of frequency using the following categories: very common (≥ 1/10); common (≥ 1/100 to < 1/10); uncommon (≥ 1/1,000 to < 1/100); rare (≥ 1/10,000 to < 1/1,000); very rare (< 1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data). Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness.
Table 1: Undesirable effects in clinical studies and from post-marketing experience.
Infections and infestations
Viral infection (e.g. influenza, herpes virus infection).
Bacterial infections (e.g. sepsis, cellulitis, abscess).
Tuberculosis, fungal infections (e.g. candidiasis, onychomycosis).
Meningitis, opportunistic infections (such as invasive fungal infections [pneumocystosis, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, coccidioidomycosis, cryptococcosis, blastomycosis], bacterial infections [atypical mycobacterial, listeriosis, salmonellosis], and viral infections [cytomegalovirus]), parasitic infections, hepatitis B reactivation.
Vaccine breakthrough infection (after in utero exposure to infliximab)*.
Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (including cysts and polyps)
Lymphoma, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, Hodgkin’s disease, leukaemia, melanoma, cervical cancer
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (primarily in adolescents and young adult males with Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis), Merkel cell carcinoma.
Blood and lymphatic system disorders
Neutropenia, leucopenia, anaemia, lymphadenopathy.
Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia, lymphocytosis.
Agranulocytosis (including infants exposed in utero to infliximab), thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, pancytopenia, haemolytic anaemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura.
Immune system disorders
Allergic respiratory symptom.
Anaphylactic reaction, lupus-like syndrome, serum sickness or serum sickness-like reaction.
Anaphylactic shock, vasculitis, sarcoid-like reaction.
Amnesia, agitation, confusion, somnolence, nervousness.
Nervous system disorders
Vertigo, dizziness, hypoaesthesia, paraesthesia.
Transverse myelitis, central nervous system demyelinating disorders (multiple sclerosis-like disease and optic neuritis), peripheral demyelinating disorders (such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and multifocal motor neuropathy).
Cerebrovascular accidents in close temporal association with infusion.
Keratitis, periorbital oedema, hordeolum.
Transient visual loss occurring during or within 2 hours of infusion.
Cardiac failure (new onset or worsening), arrhythmia, syncope, bradycardia.
Cyanosis, pericardial effusion.
Myocardial ischaemia/myocardial infarction.
Hypotension, hypertension, ecchymosis, hot flush, flushing.
Peripheral ischaemia, thrombophlebitis, haematoma.
Circulatory failure, petechia, vasospasm.
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders
Upper respiratory tract infection, sinusitis.
Lower respiratory tract infection (e.g. bronchitis, pneumonia), dyspnoea, epistaxis.
Pulmonary oedema, bronchospasm, pleurisy, pleural effusion.
Interstitial lung disease (including rapidly progressive disease, lung fibrosis and pneumonitis).
Abdominal pain, nausea.
Gastrointestinal haemorrhage, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux, constipation.
Intestinal perforation, intestinal stenosis, diverticulitis, pancreatitis, cheilitis.
Hepatic function abnormal, transaminases increased.
Hepatitis, hepatocellular damage, cholecystitis.
Autoimmune hepatitis, jaundice.
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders
New onset or worsening psoriasis including pustular psoriasis (primarily palm & soles), urticaria, rash, pruritus, hyperhidrosis, dry skin, fungal dermatitis, eczema, alopecia.
Bullous eruption, seborrhoea, rosacea, skin papilloma, hyperkeratosis, abnormal skin pigmentation.
Toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, erythema multiforme, furunculosis, linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD), acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), lichenoid reactions.
Worsening of symptoms of dermatomyositis.
Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders
Arthralgia, myalgia, back pain.
Renal and urinary disorders
Urinary tract infection.
Reproductive system and breast disorders
General disorders and administration site conditions
Infusion-related reaction, pain.
Chest pain, fatigue, fever, injection site reaction, chills, oedema.
Complement factor abnormal.
* including bovine tuberculosis (disseminated BCG infection), see section 4.4 of the Summary of Product Characteristics.
See the full Summary of Product Characteristics for further information.
Adverse events should be reported. Reporting forms and information can be found here.
Adverse events should also be reported to Biogen. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org